Functional safety

Designing machinery safety functions to meet ISO 13849

1-Day Training Course

Course description:

This course is aimed at those involved in the design of machinery safety-related control functions (or related system components) that need to achieve a performance level (PL ‘a’ to ‘e’) in accordance with ISO 13849.

The course covers the principles of functional safety as applied to modern industrial machinery, from how the required safety performance is determined through to the design of compliant safety systems. Throughout the course, a thorough overview of the standard is provided which is re-enforced with practical examples and exercises to show how it is applied.

The exercises focus on the quantifiable parameters such as mean time to failure, diagnostic coverage, common cause failure, and system architectures (categories). Once the parameters for system components have been thoroughly covered, the method for establishing the overall PL for a safety function implemented by a combination of components is worked through.

A comprehensive training manual is provided for each attendee, based on the lecture slides, together with a certificate of attendance for personnel training records.

Target audience:

The course is particularly intended for engineers (electrical/electronic /mechanical). Frequent question and answer sessions are included for clarification and group discussion.


Paul Reeve CEng FInstMC MIET is a Registered Functional Safety Engineer with the Institute of Measurement & Control and has been delivering FS courses to product manufacturers around the world for over 14 years.

1. Machine hazards, risks and performance level
• Examples of machine hazards and safety-related control functions
• Overview of functional safety principles
• Methods to quantify risk and specify the performance level (PL)
• Machinery functional safety standards (overview and relationships)
• Understanding the jargon
• PRACTICAL EXERCISE: PLr determination
2. Hardware reliability
• Basic terms and their relationships: MTBF, λ, MTTF, PFH, MTTR
• Reliability functions and equations
• Types of failure (safe, dangerous, diagnosed, etc)
• Diagnostic coverage (DC)
• Common cause failure (CCF)
• Modeling techniques:
• • Reliability Block Diagrams (RBD)
• • Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA)
• • Assumptions used in modelling
3. Hardware architectures
• Architectural concepts from ISO 13849:
• • Component features, MTTFD and diagnostic coverage
• • Categories
• PRACTICAL EXERCISE: Identifying PL limits from given scenarios
4. Software considerations
• Software lifecycle requirements
• Embedded (FVL) and application (LVL) software
• Programming rules
5. Systematic integrity
• Overview of systematic failures
• • Control of systematic failures
• • Avoidance of systematic failures
6. Documentation, verification and Validation
• Documentation (design and user) requirements
• Verification techniques
• Validation planning, test and analysis